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Particularly significant symbols of Armenian culture include the statue of Mother Armenia; Dsidsernagabert, a shrine with an ever-burning fire in memory of the Armenian victims of the 1915 genocide; the ruined ancient monasteries; khatchkars engraved stone burial crosses; the ruins of Ani, the last capital of historic Armenia, which fell in 1045; and the emblem of the 1918 first republic of Armenia, its tricolor flag. Many prehistoric sites have been unearthed in and around Armenia, showing the existence of civilizations with advanced notions in agriculture, metallurgy, and industrial production, with diverse standardized manufacturing processes and pottery.

The origins of the Armenians have long been subject to debate among historians, linguists, and archaeologists.

Armenians call themselves hay and identify their homeland not by the term "Armenia" but as Hayastan or Hayasdan.

There is also "Grabar" Armenian, the original written language, which is still used in the liturgy of the Armenian national (Apostolic) church. Mount Ararat has had symbolic significance for all Armenians. It may be seen on the horizon from Yerevan, but like a mirage it remains inaccessible to Armenians.

Ancient manuscripts depicting the history of Armenia are housed in the national library, Madenataran, and are valued national and historical treasures.

About one million Armenians live in various European countries, and half a million Armenians live in the Middle East and Africa. When Armenia was under Russian and Soviet rule, Russian constituted the second official language.

The ethnic composition of Armenia's population is 93.3 percent Armenian; 1.5 percent Russian; 1.7 percent Kurdish; and 3.5 percent Assyrian, Greek, and other. The Armenian language is an Indo-European language.

In the Bible, the area designated as Armenia is referred to as Ararat, which the Assyrians referred to as Urartu.

Armenians also identify themselves as the people of Ararat/Urartu and of Nairi, and their habitat as nairian ashkharh or yergir nairian .

The Armenians and their plateau have been subject to various invasions.

They witnessed Alexander the Great's expeditions toward the east.

The designation "Armenia" applies to different entities: a "historical" Armenia, the Armenian plateau, the 1918–1920 U. State Department map of an Armenia, and the current republic of Armenia.

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