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A dose–response relationship emerged between sleep duration and use of electronic devices, exemplified by the association between PC use and risk of less than 5 h of sleep (OR=2.70, 95% CI 2.14 to 3.39), and comparable lower odds for 7–8 h of sleep (OR=1.64, 95% CI 1.38 to 1.96).
Conclusions Use of electronic devices is frequent in adolescence, during the day as well as at bedtime.
The phrasing of the question was: “How many of the listed electronic devices do you use in your bedroom the last hour before going to sleep?
” Drag and drop function was incorporated as a feature of the web-based questionnaire.
Those not in school received information and could complete the questionnaire online.
A total of 19 430 adolescents born between 19 were invited to participate, of which 10 220 agreed, yielding a participation rate of 53%.
However, some shortcomings in the existing literature were noted in the review.
Future studies were recommended to measure sleep by self-report estimates of sleep parameters such as bedtime, SOL, time spent awake after sleep onset, wake-up time and rise time, each estimated separately for weekdays and weekend days.12 Newer technology, such as portable electronic devices, has also been recommended to be included in future studies on this topic.
In this cross-sectional population-based study, we used data from the [email protected] survey of adolescents in the county of Hordaland in Western Norway.
All adolescent born from 1993 to 1995, and all students attending secondary education during spring 2012, were invited.
Sleep variables were checked for validity of answers, resulting in data from 374 participants being excluded due to obvious invalid responses.
For example, when calculating sleep duration and sleep efficiency, individuals with negative values on these computed variables were excluded from further analyses.
Related to this, many of the previous studies have restricted their investigation to only one or two electronic devices.2 13 Whether the same pattern of sleep problems is present across type of electronic devices is thus uncertain.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating