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Luthy, Ph D, Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA Douglas Mackay, Ph D, Adjunct Professor, Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA, USA Kris Maillacheruvu, Ph D, Professor, Civil Engineering and Construction, Bradley University, Peoria, IL, USA Ian Makey, MD, Physician/Assistant Professor, Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA Colleen Makey, Ph D, Research Fellow, Environmental Health, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA Bhagyashree Manivannan, Ph D, Affiliated Faculty Member, Center for Environmental Security, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA Sherri Mason, Ph D, Professor of Chemistry and Department of Geology and Environmental Sciences Chair, The State University of New York, Fredonia, NY, USA Andrew Maynard, Ph D, Professor, School for the Future of Innovation in Society, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA Eugene Mc Call, Ph D, JD, President, Mc Call Environmental, PA, Greenville, SC, USA Perry Mc Carty, Sc D, Professor Emeritus, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA Jason P. https://echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/efc985e4-8802-4ebb-8245-29708747a358 [accessed 17 June 2016]. Fair PA, Lee HB, Adams J, Darling C, Pacepavicius G, Alaee M, et al. Occurrence of triclosan in plasma of wild Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and in their environment. J Environ Monit 91–1897, PMID: 20820626, 10.1039/C0EM00189A. J Hazard Mater 7–183, PMID: 27156397, 10.1016/j.jhazmat.20. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 73–1179, PMID: 27459681, 10.1080/10934529.2016.1206388. Microbiome , PMID: 27301250, 10.1186/s40168-016-0173-2. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). Chemical Agents and Related Occupations – Volume 100F – A Review of Human Carcinogens. Aquat Toxicol 7–179, PMID: 15003701, 10.1016/j.aquatox.20. James MO, Li W, Summerlot DP, Rowland-Faux L, Wood CE. Triclosan is a potent inhibitor of estradiol and estrone sulfonation in sheep placenta. Aquat Toxicol 124-1–82, PMID: 22926334, 10.1016/j.aquatox.20. Johnson PI, Koustas E, Vesterinen HM, Sutton P, Atchley DS, Kim AN, et al. Application of the navigation guide systematic review methodology to the evidence for developmental and reproductive toxicity of triclosan. Kinney C, Furlong E, Kolpin D, Burkhardt M, Zaugg S. Bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic waste indicators in earthworms from agricultural soil amended with biosolid or swine manure. Alteration of testicular steroidogenesis and histopathology of reproductive system in male rats treated with triclosan. Environ Sci Technol 57–6161, PMID: 20704212, 10.1021/es1011115. Environ Int –22, PMID: 23973619, 10.1016/j.envint.20. Microb Drug Resist –90, PMID: 16922622, 10.1089/mdr.20. J Chromatogr B 881-8-33, PMID: 22192874, 10.1016/j.jchromb.20.

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2007), and a large sampling of people in Denmark (Frederiksen et al. Triclosan has been detected in breast milk (Dayan 2007; Toms et al. Peaslee, Ph D, Professor, Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA Diana Petitti, MD, MPH, Clinical Professor, Biomedical Informatics, University of Arizona College of Medicine – Phoenix, Phoenix, AR, USA Jaime Plazas-Tuttle, MSc, Ph D Candidate, University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA Anuschka Polder, Ph D, Researcher, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo, Norway Rachel Poretsky, Ph D, Assistant Professor, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Peerapong Pornwongthong, Ph D, Lecturer and Researcher, Agro-Industrial, Food and Environmental Technology, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangsue Bangkok Province, Thailand George Poste, DVM, Ph D, Director, Complex Adaptive Systems, Arizona State University, Scottsdale, AZ, USA Carsten Prasse, Ph D, Postdoc, Environmental Engineering, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, USA Ana Prieto, Ph D, Research Associate, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA Andrew Purgiel, Chemical Engineering Student, University of Maine, South Berwick, ME, USA Brenda Read-Daily, Ph D, Assistant Professor of Engineering, Engineering and Physics, Elizabethtown College, Elizabethtown, PA, USA Fiona Regan, Ph D, Director, DCU Water Institute, Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland Efstathios Reppas-Chrysovitsinos, Ph D Candidate, Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry (ACES), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden Susan Richardson, Ph D, Professor, Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA Bruce Rittmann, Ph D, Regents’ Professor of Environmental Engineering, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA Larry Robertson, MPH, Ph D, Professor and Program Director, Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Chelsea Rochman, Ph D, Assistant Professor, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Stephen Roth, Ph D, Professor, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA Salim Sakaroum, Researcher, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, Oman Amina Salamova, Ph D, Assistant Scientist, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA Christopher Sales, Ph D, Assistant Professor, Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Amy Sapkota, Ph D, Associate Professor, Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, University of Maryland, School of Public Health, College Park, MD, USA Amir Sapkota, Ph D, Associate Professor, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD, USA Roger Scholten, MD, Pediatrician, General Practice, Swedish Medical Group, Seattle, WA, USA Thomas Seager, Ph D, Associate Professor, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA Janine Selendy, BA/BSc, Co-Chair, Founder, Publisher, Biology, Horizon International, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA Deborah Sills, Ph D, Assistant Professor, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA, USA Anna Soehl, MSc, Science & Policy Consultant, Green Science Policy Institute, Berkeley, CA, USA Søren Sørensen, Ph D, Chemist, Division of Residues, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Ringsted, Denmark Elena Sorokin, Ph D, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA Jitka Strakova, Arnika – Toxics and Waste Programme and IPEN – Dioxin, PCB and Waste Working Group, Prague, Czech Republic Rebecca Sutton, Ph D, Senior Scientist, San Francisco Estuary Institute, Richmond, CA, USA Michael Switzenbaum, Ph D, Professor Emeritus, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Marquette University, Whitefish Bay, WI, USA Takumi Takasuga, Ph D, Corporate Officer, General Manager, Environment Division, Shimadzu Techno-Research Inc., Kyoto, Japan Daniel Teclechiel, Ph D, Organic Synthesis, Accu Standard, Inc., New Haven, CT, USA Andrew Tongue, Ph D Candidate, Public Health, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK João Paulo Machado Torres, Ph D, Professor, Biophysics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Fabio Torres, BSc, Student, Biophysics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Tomas Trnovec, Ph D, Senior Scientist, Environmental Medicine, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava, Slovakia Linda Tseng, Ph D, Assistant Professor, Dept. Chemosphere 85–1489, PMID: 12002480, 10.1016/S0045-6535(01)00255-7. Ahn KC, Zhao B, Chen J, Cherednichenko G, Sanmarti E, Denison MS, et al. In vitro biologic activities of the antimicrobials triclocarban, its analogs, and triclosan in bioassay screens: Receptor-based bioassay screens. Effect of hand hygiene on infectious diseases risk in the community setting: A meta-analysis. Consumer antibacterial soaps: effective or just risky? Clin Infect Dis 45: S137–S147, PMID: 17683018, 10.1086/519255. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83–2390, PMID: 24684462, 10.1210/jc.2013-4281. Curr Opin Pediatr 5–242, PMID: 26867165, 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000329. Environ Toxicol Chem 6–970, PMID: 20821527, 10.1002/etc.105. Pharmacotherapy 8–336, PMID: 25809180, 10.1002/phar.1553. J Chromatogr A 49–299, PMID: 3417820, 10.1016/S0021-9673(00)94476-5. Kolpin DW, Furlong E, Meyer M, Thurman EM, Zaugg S. Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in U. Chemosphere 50–1058, PMID: 22196087, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.20. Lange A, Sebire M, Rostkowski P, Mizutani T, Miyagawa S, Iguchi T, et al. Environmental chemicals active as human antiandrogens do not activate a stickleback androgen receptor but enhance a feminising effect of oestrogen in roach. Seasonal variations in concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in drinking water and reclaimed wastewater in Southern California. The effect of triclosan on the uterotrophic response to extended doses of ethinyl estradiol in the weanling rat. Environ Sci Technol 548–13554, PMID: 27993070, 10.1021/6b04668. Environ Geochem Health 25–1135, PMID: 26497189, 10.1007/s10653-015-9777-x. Environ Int 50–1061, PMID: 18440070, 10.1016/j.envint.20. Int J Environ Res Public Health 4, PMID: 26901211, 10.3390/ijerph13020224.

Mc Devitt, Ph D, Research Scientist, William and Mary Research Institute, Williamsburg, VA, USA Joan Mc Gregor, Ph D, Professor, Philosophy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA Patrick Mc Namara, Ph D, Assistant Professor, Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, USA Yujie Men, Ph D, Assistant Professor, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA Annelle Mendez, Ph D Candidate, Safety and Environmental Technology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Lama Mghames, MSc, Project Manager, NIP POPs Project/PCB Management Project, Ministry of Environment, Beirut, Lebanon Jelena Milić, Ph D, Scientific Associate, Centre of Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade, Serbia Shelly Miller, Ph D, Professor, Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA Natalie Mladenov, Ph D, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA Bill Mott, MESc, Director, The Ocean Project, Providence, RI, USA Tom Muir, MSc, Retired, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada Lubica Palkovicova Murinova, MD, Ph D, Senior Scientist, Environmental Medicine, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava, Slovakia Steven Mylon, Ph D, Associate Professor, Chemistry, Lafayette College, Easton, PA, USA Keeve Nachman, Ph D, MHS, Assistant Professor, Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA Takeshi Nakano, Ph D, Guest Professor, Research Center for Environmental Preservation, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan Tala Navab-Daneshmand, Ph D, Assistant Professor, Chemical, Biological, and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA Randolph Nesse, MN, Professor, School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA Paige Novak, Ph D, Professor, Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geo-Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Zuleica Nycz, Director, Chemical Safety and Environmental Health, Toxisphera Environmental Health Association, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil Kees Olie, Ph D, Professor, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands Christoph Ort, Ph D, Group Leader, Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland Jonathan Patz, MD, MPH, Professor and Director, Global Health Institute, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI, USA Daniel Paull, Ph D, Assistant Professor, Chemistry, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, FL, USA Graham F. Consultancy, Brussels, Belgium Arjun Venkatesan, Ph D, Associate Research Scientist, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA Peter Vikesland, Ph D, Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA Urs von Gunten, Ph D, Head of Competence Centre for Drinking Water, Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland Polly Walker, MD, MPH, Retired, Associate Director, Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future, Baltimore, MD, USA Shane Walker, Ph D, Associate Professor, Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA Kristine Wammer, Ph D, Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry, University of St. Paul, MN, USA Michael Warhurst, Ph D, MSc, Executive Director, CHEM Trust, London, UK David Warhurst, BSc, Ph D, Emeritus Professor, Department of Pathogen Molecular Biology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK Linda Weavers, Ph D, Professor, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA Glenys Webster, Ph D, Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR) Postdoctoral Fellowship, Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Victoria, BC, Canada Tara Webster, Ph D, Postdoctoral Associate, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA Larry Weiss, MD, Chief Medical Officer, AOBiome, LLC, San Francisco, CA, USA Sacoby Wilson, Ph D, Assistant Professor, Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA Manivannan Yegambaram, Ph D, Affiliated Faculty Member, Center for Environmental Security, Arizona State University, Tempe, AR, USA Thomas Young, Ph D, Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA Wen Zhang, Ph D, Assistant Professor, CEE, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ, USA Adolfsson-Erici M, Pettersson M, Parkkonen J, Sturve J. Triclosan, a commonly used bactericide found in human milk and in the aquatic environment in Sweden. Biocidal Products Committee (BPC): Opinion on the Application for Approval of the Active Substance: Triclosan Product-type: 1. Environ Pollut 148–2254, PMID: 19410343,10.1016/j.envpol.20. Fang JL, Vanlandingham MM, Juliar BE, Olson GR, Patton RE, Beland FA. Dose–response assessment of the dermal toxicity of triclosan in B6C3F1 mice. Ghassabian A, El Marroun H, Peeters RP, Jaddoe VW, Hofman A, Verhulst FC, et al. Downstream effects of maternal hypothyroxinemia in early pregnancy: Nonverbal IQ and brain morphology in school-age children. Consumer products as sources of chemical exposures to children: Case study of triclosan. The antimicrobial triclocarban stimulates embryo production in the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Efficacy of triclosan as an antimicrobial hand soap and its potential impact on antimicrobial resistance: A focused review. Environ Int 2–949, PMID: 19299018, 10.1016/j.envint.20. Environ Int 92-6–728, PMID: 27156197, 10.1016/j.envint.20. Kanetoshi A, Ogawa H, Katsura E, Kaneshima H, Miura T. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo--dioxins upon combustion of commercial textile products containing 2,4,4ʹ-trichloro-2ʹ-hydroxydiphenyl ether (Irgasan® DP3000). Chlorination of Irgasan DP300 and formation from its chlorinated derivatives. Kerrigan JF, Engstrom DR, Yee D, Sueper C, Erickson PR, Grandbois M, et al. Quantification of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs), triclosan, and related compounds in freshwater and coastal systems. Environ Sci Technol 63–1870, PMID: 18409605, 10.1021/es702304c. Environ Sci Technol 02–1211, PMID: 11944670, 10.1021/es011055j. Reprod Toxicol 7–185, PMID: 19118620, 10.1016/j.reprotox.20. Langdon KA, Warne MSJ, Smernik RJ, Shareef A, Kookana RS. Field dissipation of 4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, triclosan and bisphenol A following land application of biosolids. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Chemical Assessment Summary on Chloroform, CASRN 67-66-3. https://gov/ncea/iris/iris_documents/documents/subst/0025_[accessed 16 February 2017]. Ye X, Wong LY, Dwivedi P, Zhou X, Jia T, Calafat AM. Urinary concentrations of the antibacterial agent triclocarban in United States residents: 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Chinese population exposure to triclosan and triclocarban as measured via human urine and nails. Polychlorinated dibenzo--dioxins and dibenzofurans pollution in China: Sources, environmental levels and potential human health impacts. Zhu W, Zhang H, Tong C, Xie C, Fan G, Zhao S, et al. Environmental exposure to triclosan and semen quality.

Triclosan may also be transformed to methyl triclosan or to other products (Davis et al. Triclosan contains detectable contaminant levels of polychlorinated dioxins and furans, including toxic and carcinogenic 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs, which are formed in amounts that vary with the quality of production technology [Menoutis and Parisi 2002; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) 2013; Zheng et al. For example, in one population sample (93% of milk samples over a wide range of concentrations (Toms et al. The ability of triclosan to partition into human milk raises concerns about impacts from exposure on nursing infants. Triclosan and triclocarban have detrimental effects on aquatic organisms (Chalew and Halden 2009; Tamura et al. The continuous exposure of aquatic organisms to triclosan and triclocarban, coupled with their bioaccumulation potential, have led to detectable levels of triclosan and triclocarban throughout aquatic food chains in species such as algae, crustaceans, fish, and marine mammals (Adolfsson-Erici et al. Beecher N, Crawford K, Goldstein N, Kester G, Lono-Batura M, Dziezyk E. A National Biosolids Regulation, Quality, End Use, & Disposal Survey – Final Report. Tamworth, NH: North East Biosolids and Residual Association (NEBRA). Fate of triclosan and triclosan-methyl in sewage treatment plants and surface waters. Buth JM, Grandbois M, Vikesland PJ, Mc Neill K, Arnold WA. Aquatic photochemistry of chlorinated triclosan derivatives: potential source of polychlorodibenzo--dioxins. Removal and formation of chlorinated triclosan derivatives in wastewater treatment plants using chlorine and UV disinfection. Environ Res 1–38, PMID: 24529000, 10.1016/j.envres.20. Orvos D, Versteeg D, Inauen J, Capdevielle M, Rothenstein A, Cunningham V. Paul KB, Hedge JM, Bansal R, Zoeller RT, Peter R, De Vito MJ, et al. Developmental triclosan exposure decreases maternal, fetal, and early neonatal thyroxine: Dynamic and kinetic evaluation of a putative mode-of-action. Environ Sci Technol 31–8838, PMID: 24971846, 10.1021/es501100w. Chemosphere 5–827, PMID: 22273184, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.20. Schebb NH, Flores I, Kurobe T, Franze B, Ranganathan A, Hammock BD, et al. Bioconcentration, metabolism and excretion of triclocarban in larval Qurt medaka ().

Triclosan is a “pre-dioxin” and is associated with formation of polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDDs/Fs) throughout its life cycle. Benthic organisms such as worms, crabs, and shellfish can be exposed to triclosan and triclocarban via particulate matter and sediments (Miller et al. In laboratory studies of algae, crustaceans, and fish, both triclosan and triclocarban have been shown to exhibit acute and subchronic toxicity at concentrations found in the environment (Tamura et al. Environ Sci Technol 0–395, PMID: 14750712, 10.1021/es030068p. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 44–1065, PMID: 22057832, 10.1007/s11356-011-0632-z. Am J Infect Control 9–218, PMID: 8807001, 10.1016/S0196-6553(96)90017-6. Environ Sci Technol 45–4551, PMID: 20476764, 10.1021/es1001105. Mortensen ME, Calafat AM, Ye X, Wong LY, Wright DJ, Pirkle JL, et al. Urinary concentrations of environmental phenols in pregnant women in a pilot study of the National Children’s Study. Food Chem Toxicol 1–370, PMID: 10722890, 10.1016/S0278-6915(99)00164-7. Environ Toxicol Chem 38–1349, PMID: 12109732, 10.1002/etc.5620210703. Toxicol Sci 17–379, PMID: 19910387, 10.1093/toxsci/kfp271. Philippat C, Botton J, Calafat AM, Ye X, Charles MA, Slama R, et al. Environ Health Perspect 125–1231, PMID: 23942273, 10.1289/ehp.1206335. Reprod Toxicol 4–401, PMID: 27638325, 10.1016/j.reprotox.20. Pycke BFG, Geer LA, Dalloul M, Abulafia O, Jenck AM, Halden RU. Human fetal exposure to triclosan and triclocarban in an urban population from Brooklyn, New York. Whole blood is the sample matrix of choice for monitoring systemic triclocarban levels.

2008) and are a source of toxic and carcinogenic compounds including dioxins, chloroform, and chlorinated anilines (Buth et al. Sediment cores indicate long-term preservation of triclosan and triclocarban dating to approximately 1964 (when triclosan was patented) (Anger et al. Triclosan has been detected in wild bottlenose dolphins at levels similar to those in humans (Fair et al. These levels are potentially high enough to cause harm (Meador et al. Triclosan was recently detected in the eggs of skimmers, seabirds that serve as sensitive indicators of coastal health and of contaminant threats to fish-eating birds and animals (Millow et al. Methyl triclosan, an even more lipophilic and stable bacterial transformation product of triclosan, has been detected in fish at levels considerably higher than in the surrounding water (Balmer et al. SCCS (European Commission Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety).

Triclosan and triclocarban persist in the environment (Miller et al. Both compounds are predicted to have half-lives on the order of 60d in water, 120d in soil, and 540d in sediment (Halden and Paull 2005). 2009), and triclosan partitions into human blood and breast milk (Allmyr et al. Triclosan and triclocarban are highly hydrophobic and bioaccumulate in organisms living in aquatic systems exposed to effluent from wastewater treatment plants. The bioaccumulation and slow conversion of methyl triclosan in lower-level consumers such as catfish could transfer environmental triclosan to higher-level consumers in the food chain, including humans (James et al. Triclocarban bioaccumulates in freshwater worms (Higgins et al. J Toxicol Environ Health Part A 61–1873, PMID: 16952905, 10.1080/15287390600631706. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 19–183, PMID: 24468262, 10.1016/20. J Allergy Clin Immunol 13–460, PMID: 22704536, 10.1016/20.

Sci Total Environ 3–93, PMID: 17007908, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.20. Environmental exposure of aquatic and terrestrial biota to triclosan and triclocarban. Environ Health Perspect 10–396, PMID: 21062687, 10.1289/ehp.1002883. Chemosphere 11–1918, PMID: 17275881, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.20. Environ Int 4–160, PMID: 26292060, 10.1016/j.envint.20. Dhillon GS, Kaur S, Pulicharla R, Brar SK, Cledón M, Verma M, et al. Triclosan: Current status, occurrence, environmental risks and bioaccumulation potential. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 469–481, 10.1021/bk-2010-1048.ch023. Environ Sci Technol 23–8930, PMID: 23865377, 10.1021/es401919k. Reprod Sci 9–127, PMID: 20889956, 10.1177/1933719110382581. Sci Total Environ 45–238, PMID: 24291564, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.20. Uptake and accumulation of antimicrobials, triclocarban and triclosan, by food crops in a hydroponic system. Triclosan exposure modulates estrogen-dependent responses in the female Wistar rat. Toms LM, Allmyr M, Mueller JF, Adolfsson-Erici M, Mc Lachlan M, Murby J, et al. Triclosan in individual human milk samples from Australia.

Allmyr M, Adolfsson-Erici M, Mc Lachlan MS, Sandborgh-Englund G. Triclosan in plasma and milk from Swedish nursing mothers and their exposure via personal care products. Algal bioaccumulation of triclocarban, triclosan, and methyl-triclosan in a North Texas wastewater treatment plant receiving stream. Environ Toxicol Chem 88–1793, PMID: 18380516, 10.1897/07-374.1. Reprod Toxicol 7–613, PMID: 23059059, 10.1016/j.reprotox.20. Den Hond E, Tournaye H, De Sutter P, Ombelet W, Baeyens W, Covaci A, et al. Human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and fertility: A case-control study in male subfertility patients. Triclosan exposure increases triclosan resistance and influences taxonomic composition of benthic bacterial communities. Effects of triclocarban on intact immature male rat: Augmentation of androgen action. Macherius A, Lapen DR, Reemtsma T, Römbke J, Topp E, Coors A. Triclocarban, triclosan and its transformation product methyl triclosan in native earthworm species four years after a commercial-scale biosolids application. J Appl Toxicol 22–1229, PMID: 22806922, 10.1002/jat.2771. Clin Transl Allergy 6, PMID: 27051518, 10.1186/s13601-016-0102-2.

Triclosan and triclocarban are persistent in the environment. 2009, 2010) and upon heating and combustion (Kanetoshi et al. Triclocarban degrades via aerobic biodegradation and photolysis into 4-chloroaniline and 3,4-dichloroaniline (Ding et al. 2007) and animals (Coogan and La Point 2008; Fair et al. Triclosan, methyl triclosan, and triclocarban all bioaccumulate rapidly in algae and snails exposed to wastewater treatment effluent with calculated bioaccumulation factors in the thousands (Coogan et al. In biosolids-amended soil ecosystems, triclosan, methyl triclosan, and triclocarban bioaccumulate in earthworms (Higgins et al. Aquat Toxicol 16–353, PMID: 20855117, 10.1016/j.aquatox.20. Sandborgh-Englund G, Adolfsson-Erici M, Odham G, Ekstrand J. Pharmacokinetics of triclosan following oral ingestion in humans. Urinary triclosan levels and recent asthma exacerbations. Urinary levels of triclosan and parabens are associated with aeroallergen and food sensitization. Gen Comp Endocrinol 20–107, PMID: 27235644, 10.1016/j.ygcen.20. Environ Sci Technol 98–5004, PMID: 12523412, 10.1021/es025750i CCC. Chemosphere 3–949, PMID: 10739030, 10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00337-9.

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